Archive for October, 2010

Architecting for on-premise as well as Azure hosting


If you’re an ISV and you’re contemplating whether you should migrate your product to Windows Azure, you may be asking yourself if you can have your cake and eat it too, that is, have the exact same code base deployed with customers running on-premise as well as with customers running in the cloud. In this blog post I will offer some technical guidance on this issue.

These are my assumptions:

  1. You want to offer your software as Software as a Service, that is, as a hosted service running on Windows Azure
  2. Each customer will want to have a dedicated virtual machine for running the application (that is, I am not going to go into multi-tenancy here)

I am not making any assumptions on whether your application can currently be scaled horizontally. If it can’t, moving it to Azure will not change this. The Azure load balancers use a round-robin algorithm and have no support for sticky sessions of out the box, so making the application scale will most likely be a non-trivial exercise.

Isolating dependencies

The key to having an application be able to run both on-premise and in Windows Azure is to isolate the application’s dependencies on the hosting environment, hide these dependencies behind suitable abstractions and then provide implementations of these abstractions tailored at each hosting environment.

So, the first step in taking your application to the cloud should be to identify the dependencies for which we will need to provide abstractions. Obviously, we only need to consider the parts of the application’s environment which differ between Windows Azure and an on-premise environment. Typical examples include:

  • Database (SQL Server vs. SQL Azure)
  • Shared file systems

Thus, you need to re-architect your application from something that looks like this:


to something that looks more like this:


If you are in luck, you already have an abstraction which somewhat isolates the rest of your application from the particular database implementation. This would be the case if you are using an ORM like Entity Framework, Nhibernate or something similar. Isolating other dependencies may require more work.

Taking it to the cloud

At this point, you have an application with a nice encapsulation of external dependencies. Even though the application is only able to run on-premise at this point, the architecture has already been improved.  The next step is obviously to provide implementations of your abstractions suitable for running in the cloud. This is the fun part: If you have identified the right abstractions, you can go nuts in cloud technology, using massively scalable storage, asynchronous communication mechanisms, CDNs etc. This process should give you an application capable of running on Windows Azure:


Configuring dependencies

The code base now contains everything we need for an on-premise installation as well as for a cloud deployment. However, to truly decouple the application from its dependencies, the set of dependency encapsulations to use in a given installation should be easily configurable. To this end, use your favorite dependency injection tool. Unless you decide to roll your own tool, the tool you choose will most likely support multiple methods of configuration and you can choose whatever method you prefer.

If you want to get really fancy, you may even choose to have the application configure its dependencies on its own on startup. The application can use the Windows Azure API to tell it whether it is running on Windows Azure. The information is available through the Microsoft.WindowsAzure.ServiceRuntime.RoleEnvironment class, which has a static property called IsAvailable:


I usually hide the environment information provider behind a static gateway pattern.

This was a quick run down of one path towards the cloud. Obviously, there is much more to be said, especially with respect to the ‘taking it to the cloud’-step. I’ll save that for another day.

Packaging a Web Site for Windows Azure

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I am spending a few days participating in the “Bringing Composite C1 to Windows Azure” workshop this week.

I didn’t know Composite C1 beforehand, but so far it has been a pleasure to get to know it.

The only major hiccup we encountered on the first day was that the Composite C1 application is not a Web Application Project in the Visual Studio sense, but is instead a Web Site.

Windows Azure web roles are per default Web Application Projects, so we set out to convert Composite C1 to a Web Application Project while discussing if it is possible to deploy a Web Site to Windows Azure.

Since Windows Azure is just Windows 2008 with IIS 7.0 I figured it should be possible to run a Web Site on Windows Azure, but whether we could get the management services to deploy the Web Site in the first place was another matter.

Coincidentally, Steve Marx recently wrote a blog post on manually packaging up an application for deployment to Windows Azure, so in this blog post I will attempt to deploy a Web Site to Windows Azure using a manual packaging approach. I will be using a generic web site instead of Composite C1 since using Composite C1 would probably cause some unrelated problems to surface.

So, I start out by creating a new Web Site:


Next, I need to create a service definition which will tell Windows Azure what my web site looks like. As for now, I will be define a service with a single webrole. So, I create a new file called ServiceDefinition.csdef:


and I fill in some basic parameters:


Now, I could go ahead and package up the application and deploy it. However, if I do this, the web role will be extremely sick and throw exceptions saying “Unrecognized attribute ‘targetFramework’”, referring to the targetFramework=”4.0” attribute in web.config.

Figuring out why this happens and what to do about it will require some further investigation. For now I just go ahead and delete the attribute. This also means that I need to delete the “using System.Linq;” statements in Site.Master, Default.aspx.cs and About.aspx.cs.

To package the application I need to use the cspack.exe that comes with the Windows Azure SDK. I’ve added the SDK’s bin directory to my PATH, so I can go ahead and package the application:


This is a pretty long command, so I’ll repeat it here for convenience:

cspack ServiceDefinition.csdef /role:MyWebRole;WebSite1
/out:MyWebSite.csx /generateConfigurationFile:ServiceC onfiguration.cscfg
Windows(R) Azure(TM) Packaging Tool version for Microsoft(R) .NET Framework 3.5 Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.



The cspack application certainly doesn’t seem very verbose. Anyway, I can now go ahead and deploy the web site to the Azure Development Fabric using another tool from the SDK, csrun:


And presto! I now have a web site running on the Development Fabric:


To actually deploy the web site to the cloud you need to create a proper deployment package. To do this, leave out the /copyOnly flag from the packaging command:


Again, I’ll repeat the command:

cspack ServiceDefinition.csdef /role:MyWebRole;WebSite1 /generateConfigurationFile:ServiceConfiguration.csfg

This will generate a file called ServiceDefinition.cspkg that you can upload through the Windows Azure Portal along with the ServiceConciguration.cscfg.

Once the Fabric Controller has done its thing we have a web site in the cloud:


I had to cut some corners in the proces, but at least this shows that the web site model _can_ run on Windows Azure.